Friday, March 20, 2020
Circuit Breaker Abstract essays A circuit breaker was examined to determine how it works. Basically, it is designed to disconnect the current if the current passing through the breaker is higher than the allowable current. Its main parts consist of a switch, connecting pads, and the disconnect device. Since the breaker consists of many individual parts, the only improvement found was to combine some of the parts into a single part. Our group dissected a thirty-amp household Circuit-breaker. Its purpose is to protect electrical appliances from being damaged though excessive currents. A circuit breaker limits the amount of current that may safely enter a household electrical system via a predetermined amperage rating. It is placed in series between your house and the provided electricity. Any current in excess of the rated current amount will trip the circuit breaker in to a non-conducting or open path condition. The closed path is maintained until either magnetism or thermal expansion causes the circuit The circuit breaker has several features that are worth noting in the design discussion. First is its ability to detect various types of loading situations. The breaker can not only open a circuit in response to a current spike, but can also react to a sustained moderate current draw, just above its rated current. The circuit breaker also has an easily resetable 3-position switch, and various internal safety features such as Operation of the circuit breaker is simple, but utilizes complex mechanisms. Essentially there are to main internal mechanisms; the trigger and the switch. The trigger is the device that senses the abnormal current load. A sharp spike in current will cause a magnetic field to form in the trigger, releasing the switch. A slightly elevated, but more constant current draw through the breaker will cause the bi-metal composition of ...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
About the United States Attorneys The United States Attorneys, under the direction and supervision of the Attorney General, represent the federal government in courtrooms across the entire nation. There are currentlyÃ 93 U.S. Attorneys based throughout the United States, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands. One United States Attorney is assigned to each of the judicial districts, with the exception of Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands where a single United States Attorney serves in both districts. Each U.S. Attorney is the chief federal law enforcement officer of the United States within his or her particular local jurisdiction. All U.S. Attorneys are required to live in the district to which they are appointed, except that in the District of Columbia and the Southern and Eastern Districts of New York, they may live within 20 miles of their district. Established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, the United States Attorneys have long been a part of the countrys history and legal system. Salaries of the U.S. AttorneysÃ Salaries of U.S. Attorneys are currentlyÃ set by the Attorney General. Depending on their experience, U.S. Attorneys can make from about $46,000 to about $150,000 a year (in 2007). Details on the current salaries and benefits of U.S. Attorneys can be found on the Web site of the Department of Justices Office of Attorney Recruitment and Management. Until 1896, U.S. Attorneys were paid on a fee system based on the cases they prosecuted. For attorneys serving coastal districts, where the courts were filled with maritime cases dealing with seizures and forfeitures involving expensive shipping cargo, those fees could amount to quite a substantial sum. According to the Justice Department, One U.S. Attorney in a coastal district reportedly received an annual income of $100,000 as early as 1804. When the Justice Department began regulating the salaries of the U.S. Attorneys in 1896, they ranged from $2,500 to $5,000. Until 1953, the U.S. Attorneys were allowed to supplement their incomes by retaining their private practice while holding office.Ã What the U.S. Attorneys Do The U.S. Attorneys represent the federal government, and thus the American people, in any trial in which the United States is a party. Under Title 28, Section 547 of the United States Code, the U.S. Attorneys have three main responsibilities: prosecution of criminal cases brought by the federal government;prosecution and defense of civil cases in which the United States is a party; andcollection of money owed to the government which cannot be collected administratively. Criminal prosecution conducted by U.S. Attorneys includes cases involving violations of the federal criminal laws, including organized crime, drug trafficking, political corruption, tax evasion, fraud, bank robbery, and civil rights offenses. On the civil side, U.S. Attorneys spend most of their courtroom time defending government agencies against claimsÃ and enforcing social legislation such as environmental quality and fair housing laws. When representing the United States in court, the U.S. Attorneys are expected to represent and implement the policies of the U.S. Department of Justice. While they receive direction and policy advice from the Attorney General and other Justice Department officials, the U.S. Attorneys are allowed a large degree of independence and discretion in choosing which cases they prosecute. Prior to the Civil War, the U.S. Attorneys were allowed to prosecute those crimes specifically mentioned in the Constitution, namely, piracy, counterfeiting, treason, felonies committed on the high seas, or cases resulting from interference with federal justice, extortion by federal officers, thefts by employees from the United States Bank, and arson of federal vessels at sea How U.S. Attorneys are Appointed U.S. Attorneys are appointed by the President of the United States for four-year terms. Their appointments must be confirmed by a majority vote of the U.S. Senate. By law, U.S. Attorneys are subject to removal from their posts by the President of the United States. While most U.S. Attorneys serve full four-year terms, usually corresponding to the terms of the president who appointed them, mid-term vacancies do occur. Each U.S. Attorney is allowed to hire and fire Assistant U.S. Attorneys as needed to meet the case load generated in their local jurisdictions. U.S. Attorneys are allowed wide authority in controlling the personnel management, financial management, and procurement functions of their local offices. Prior to enactment of the Patriot Act Reauthorization Bill of 2005, on March 9, 2006, mid-term replacement U.S. Attorneys were appointed by the Attorney General to serve for 120 days, or until a permanent replacement appointed by the president could be confirmed by the Senate. A provision of the Patriot Act Reauthorization Bill removed the 120-day limit on the terms of interim U.S. Attorneys, effectively extending their terms to the end of the presidents term and bypassing the U.S. Senates confirmation process. The change effectively extended to the president the already controversial power of making Ã¢â¬â¹recess appointments in installing U.S. Attorneys.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Acropolis in the Late Bronze Age - Essay Example It is the highest point of Athens (Blegen 1967, 22). Acropolis is situated on a horizontally topped rock wrapping; the area of approximately 3 hectors with 500 feet exceeding the sea level. In the more primordial times, it was known as Cecropia (with reference to the name of first Athenian king) (Mountjoy 1995, 122). In the ancient history of Greece, the ancient city of Athens clutches an explicit historical significance because of antediluvian developmental arenas (John 2001, 23). When it is to be conferred about well known migration from Athens city towards Acropolis, it reveals different momentous ciphers about the actual phenomenon. Many of the historians refer it to as a natural disaster or any other catastrophe such as rain flood, storm or earth quake. However the symptoms of actual occurrence divulge abundant facts and events associated to the migration (Myres and John 1958, 46). Some of the historians disclose it as a threat of invasion at Athens that is accentuated over the need of migration. The late Bronze Age covers the overall underlying phenomenon. The period of late Bronze Age is traced from 1600 B.C to 1100 B.C. The well known migration from Athens to Acropolis is found in the history as Dorian migration. In the fundamental study, we will focus on identification of the actual causes for what people were forced to migrate toward a higher peak point of the city for the sake of shelter (Mountjoy 1995, 129). Background Late Bronze Age was equipped in resolution on the shore of model settlements in Mycenae and property was bordered by mountains. At the same time impenetrable refinement was divergent to the prevailing mores. The late Bronze Age was most likely to be overlapping with the early Iron Age (John, 41). Some of the historians entail that the latest epochs of late Bronze Age and early Iron Age are identical. According to the numerous archaeologists the late Bronze Age was collapsed with the said migration. The migrants were those people who l ived around the Aegean Sea. They were forced to migrate to upper most point of the Athens city (Hall, 40). Until a few years back (than to the late Bronze Age), the Athenians were not that much notorious to the urbanity. The fortification of exploration of excavations was the main apprehension of the time. At last there were five excavations which were furnished through the Athens history (Robinson and Boegehold, 81). If these excavations are to be further explored in order to dig out the ground facts of that time, the early crusades reveal about the continuances of flight of stairs which were prime from the inferior portion of the city (Athens) to upper corner toward Acropolis. The history of Late Bronze Age also covers the dark age of Athens (Myres and John, 12). Migration The destruction of Mycenaean places was mistrustful as it forced people to move towards upper segment of Acropolis (Bury, 21). Numerous archaeologists argue that it was because of rain flood since it is observed that people recurrently move to higher situate when there is a flood. But there were no symptoms of flood. It is because the destruction of the flood is somewhat explicit. The fire at that place was also not evident because it leaves nothing behind (Drews, 8). The feudal system was in institution at conventions. The invaders were destructing the places to eradicate the feudalism. It seems more sophisticated if the foundation of destruction may be referred to as being some sort of invasion (Anonymous, 39). It is said that the Dorian invaders assaulted the population that were residing in Peloponnesus. The Dorian belonged to subsequent lower social class and they were looking for amputation of feudal system and insurgency to improve their life styles
Sunday, February 2, 2020
The Strategic Audit of Nokia Corporation through the Use of Frameworks such as Porters Five Forces Model, Porters Generic Strategies, and Resource-Based View Approach - Essay Example In this study, it can be understood that strategic analysis falls under strategic management which is an important part for Nokia to sustain in the prevailing market. Moreover, through the use of secondary sources, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s overall performance in the year 2013 has been revealed that provides an understanding that NokiaÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in the market for the past few years has been declining. Thus, the company must effectively use its resources in order to improve its performance and get the competitive advantage in the global market. Nokia was founded in the year 1865 by Fredrik Idestam and is headquartered in Espoo, Finland. It is a multi-national company which is specialized in producing mobile phones that provides telecommunication services to its customers. In the year 2013 Nokia had employed more than 87,771 employees across 120 nations and the company has been selling its product to 150 nations. Moreover, it was witnessed that Nokia earned revenue of 30 billion euros in the year 2013 and the company is a public limited-liability company; it is listed in the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and Helsinki Stock Exchange (HSE). However, presently the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s market share has been declining due to the tough competition faced by Samsung and Apple. Besides, lack of innovation in the recent time has been identified as a major reason behind the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s losing market share worldwide. Correspondingly, the study is primarily focused towards strategic analysis of Nokia Corporation through frameworks such as Porters Five Forces, PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Generic Strategies and WernerfeltÃ¢â¬â¢s Resource-Based View framework. Moreover, the study focuses to provide the recommendation to Nokia Corporation through the strategic analysis so that it can regain its supremacy in the global industrial context. Strategic management is a systematic process that involves the combination of actions such as strategic analysis, preparation of strategies along with its implementation.Strategic analysis is an integral part of strategic management that involves examining the organization in relation to the organizational structure and culture, strengths as well as weaknesses, product, people along with services.
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Effects of Ability Grouping in Middle School Ability grouping is viewed by workers as a controversial educational practice (Ansalone, 2006; Rubin, 2006) because it has been the subject of more research studies (well over 500) than almost any other educational practice (George Alexander, 2003, p. 414). The proponents who include teachers and parents maintain that ability grouping specifically targets instruction thereby needs of a particular group of students is met while opponents maintain that the expected advantages often are not materialized. According to Snider and Schumitsch (2006) ability grouping promotes stigma and destroys academic motivation, especially among the slow learning students; self-esteem is regarded to be the condition that aids student achievement. Generally speaking, child-centered teaching methods embrace the child as a whole and give emphasis in meeting the socio-emotional and cognitive needs of the child. William and Bartholomew (2004) statistically analyzed data from the General Certificate of Secondary Education and Key Stage 3 tests. The data analysis provided the basis for measuring achievement which is independent of the individuals ability. William and Bartholomew noted that grouping by ability level had little impact on overall Mathematics achievement. Moreover, the group placement produced increments in academic achievement for high-achieving students at the loss of these gains among the low-ability students. Also noted is that performance in mathematics did not vary across school type and ability group placement. Burris, Heubert, and Levin (2006) reported contradictory results and revealed that high attaining students are not affected when integrated with students whose ability is below theirs. A longitudinal approach was conducted which examined scores in Mathematics achievement tests in six succeeding years. Data obtained from the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) were likewise collected. The problem tackled the belief that ability grouping is the cause of persistently low academic achievement in schools. The research probed on the impact on Mathematics achievement when high attaining students are grouped with students in the lower ability levels. The study revealed that highly achieving students were unaffected by the ability grouping. Venkatakrishnan and William (2003) reported that tracking students in mathematics affected them differently. ANCOVA model showed that high-achieving students were not advantaged significantly when placed in the tracks however, student progress in the heterogeneous group detected significant progress-prior achievement correlation. This indicates that when placed in mixed-ability group, low-achieving students attained the most advantage while setbacks on high-achieving students are minimal. Robinson (2008) noted that ability grouping in kindergarten reading classes significantly correlated with greater benefits for the Hispanic students when compared to students of other ethnic backgrounds. However, benefit was reduced during summer and the first grade, unless during the first grade, ability grouping is continued. There is robustness in the study results suggesting that variations in instructional strategies at the start of the school could prove effective and a more economical means of bridging the achievement gap faced by an ever growing student population. Liu (2009) found that students in low-ability groups perceived lower academic self-concept than the average and high-achieving groups. A noteworthy outcome in the study is that the low-ability student participants largely improved in academic confidence and overall self-concept in English while the high-performing group remained stable in these respects. Tach and Farkas (2005) utilized national ECLS-K data in estimating the predictors and impact of reading ability grouping in the kindergarten and first grade levels. The research noted that prior performance in the test is the most significant predictor of the placement followed by the teachers subjective evaluation of the students classroom learning behavior. Both of these variables could be attributed to the differences in the effect according to social class, gender, or race when ability grouping is first implemented. The study revealed that in kindergarten and first grade classes where ability grouping is introduced, a higher placement positively affected learning behavior and reading performance of students. Placement in an ability group as well as evaluation of teacher regarding student behavior both significantly influenced students increase in reading performance, even net of prior scores to reading achievement tests. The grouping takes group- and individual-level performance variations that appear during preschool which widen even more than during the first two formative schooling years. Totten and Bosco (2008) measured the effect of ability grouping in a university geology class. Students from the nine sections in elementary geology laboratory class were administered a Mathematics Proficiency Basic Skills Test (MPBST) before the start of the semester. The results of the MPBST divided the student respondents to homogeneous, heterogeneous, and self- selected groups. GTAs were assigned blindly to the sections so they have no knowledge as to how the classes were grouped. Grades became the gauge for student achievement by computing the scores obtained from individual work, ten quizzes, and two examinations and 11 group laboratory reports. Within and between group comparisons were applied on the scores using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the study suggest that students from the homogeneous group demonstrated the highest academic performance in introductory geology. Powell (2008) assessed if grouping students in accordance to reading ability would impact the self-concept of third to fifth graders who have below average, satisfactory, and above average reading skill. Independent t -tests showed significant differences in self-concept levels. Among the third graders, only the average learners significantly improved in the self-concept scores since they obtained higher scores during post-test. In the 4th grade students, statistical differences exist in the self-concept of below average learners. Fifth grade students did not show any change in self-concept despite the grouping. Ireson and Hallam (2005) established pupils liking to attend school and correlated this construct, experiences of pupils during lessons, self-concept and school setting. Stratified sampling was done and selected 45 mixed secondary comprehensive schools. The schools represented various types of ability grouping methods in years 7-9. When the other variables were controlled statistically, extent of ability group in the school did not exert any significant effect. Karademir and Ucak (2009) investigated the effect of ability grouping on the academic achievement of 7th grade students in If there were no pressure? in Science and Technology Education during the second semester of AY 2006-2007 in an elementary school. Using co-variance analysis, there were significant differences detected in academic achievement (p0.05), the reverse was noted among the males. Lleras and Rangel (2009) examined the effect of ability grouping on Hispanic and African American students at a primary school. Data analyzed were taken from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study and results supported the differential effect of ability placement. Students with low reading ability learned substantially less compared to those grouped higher. The latter group slightly learned more over the first years of schooling against those from classrooms where grouping is not practiced. In sum, the study questioned the notion that ability grouping beneficially affect the first few years of learning in school. The paper published by Toomela, Kikas, and Mottus (2006) dealt with concerns on the quality of schooling and impact of ability grouping on the academic achievement of 147 students from two mainstream town schools, one rural school, Step-by-Step school and an elite private school. Two assessment periods were performed: at start of age 7 and grade 3. First, an assessment on the respondents cognitive abilities was conducted followed by proficiency in mathematics and Estonian language was evaluated. Results indicated that attendance in the elite private school correlated to abilities and increase in academic performance. However, a Multiple Regression Analysis using both school and average cognitive ability of the school the child attended negatively affected those in the elite private school. Valdez (2010) conducted an action research focusing on a ninth-grade Algebra I class at Kensington International Business High School, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The study commenced last February 2010 and completed in March 2010. Students were assigned to two groups, namely: failing and passing students. The former repeated the first half of the Algebra course while the latter continued. The principal respondents of the study were passing ninth grade students. Data were collected from interviews, teacher observations, assessment results, journals, and student questionnaires. In summary, the results implied that reorganization of the Algebra I course into two, Algebra IA and Algebra IB benefitted the achievers and the teacher. Researchers like Ellison and Hallinan (2004) noted that students in Catholic high schools outperform public secondary schools in standardized achievement tests. Though many follow up research has been conducted focusing on this finding, the effects of ability grouping on academic achievement is given little attention. Because it is an almost universal method practiced in middle and secondary schools all over the US, ability grouping channels opportunities for learning to students. The authors also traced the historical background of ability grouping and reviewed findings pertaining to effects on ability grouping, the process of assignment, and mobility across groups of students in every school sector. Analyses implied that implementation of ability grouping in Catholic schools contributes to higher achievement. Saleh, Lazonder, and Jong de (2005) examined the effects of various grouping arrangements on academic achievement, social interaction as well as motivation. Students varying in ability were randomly assigned to two ability groups homogeneous or heterogeneous ability groups. The students took the same botany course. The main findings indicate that below average students increased in achievement and learning motivation when integrated to the heterogeneous group. Average students better performed in same ability group while above average students show comparable learning outcomes in both groupings. In terms of social interaction, heterogeneous group placement produced more individual elaborations, while more collaborative elaborations in the other group. The results of the study of Cheung and Rudowicz (2003) revealed that ability grouping did not have any significant negative effect. Grouping was done according to prior academic performance. Those in the more homogeneous group significantly reported higher self-esteem and academic achievement in the subsequent school years. The effects of ability grouping in mathematically gifted students on academic self-concept and boredom were established by Preckel, Gotz, and Frenzel (2010). Students were shown to report very pronounced low math academic self-concept at the early period of the academic year. Interventions should therefore be implemented to counterbalance this negative effect. There is no evidence that gifted students are bored in the regular classes. The students gave different reasons for the experience of boredom in class and that there are changes in boredom attributions over time. This supports the notion that gifted classes should be provided appropriate levels of challenging tasks. Dukmak (2009) investigated the interaction between teachers and students in various learning environments in selected middle primary schools in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). These environments were as follows: same- and mixed-ability and same- and mixed -ability learning groups in one classroom. The sample were 16 low-and high-achieving males and females. The results demonstrated that students with high academic performance in all learning settings had more interaction with low-achieving students. Females from high-achieving groups interacted more frequently with males sharing same academic ability as they are. More interaction was observed among boys in same-ability classrooms compared to that in mixed-ability classrooms; among females, the trend was the opposite. Same-ability students interacted more when compared with the mixed-ability students. The results likewise revealed that more teacher interaction with males and achievers. Low-achieving males received more teacher interac tion than females of their academic level. Teachers interacted more with males who are high academic achievers in same-ability than in mixed-ability classrooms. In mixed-ability classrooms, teachers had more interaction with low-achievers of both gender than those of their academic status in same ability classrooms. Lipps, Lowe, Halliday, Morris-Patterson, Clarke, and Wilson (2010) showed evidence that academic tracking is associated with depressive symptoms. They sampled students from Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. More than half of students reported experiencing depression while 19.2% and 10.7% felt moderate and severe depressive symptoms, respectively. Jamaican students significantly reported higher depression compared with those in St. Vincent and St. Kitts and Nevis. Students in the higher tracked tended to obtain significantly lower scores in BDI-II than lower academic track students. Mulkey, Casambis, Steelman, and Crain (2005) employed a mixed methods design using the conceptual framework and analysis of surveys. Data collected by the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 were subjected to further analysis. The survey data were taken at two years of interval. The findings revealed that academic self-esteem was significantly lower in the high- than the low-level ability group. Chiu, Beru, Watley, Wubu, Simon, Kessinger, Rivera, Anahi, Schmidlein, and Wiqfield (2008) concluded that academic self-concept in Mathematics was significantly affected by ability grouping but not the overall self-esteem of students. The researchers found evidence that students are comparing with each other within rather than outside their ability group. It was likewise shown that students more likely compare themselves with students who performed better than themselves instead with those who had poorer performance. Teachers and students attitudes towards ability grouping The attitude of the teachers toward the ability of their students influences tracking decisions according to Watanabe (2007). The same author suggested that teachers philosophies and expectations, specifically their belief that providing students with various skills opportunities to have access to higher level college courses and enrolment in the required prerequisites influences practices of college placement. A qualitative research was employed by Chisaka and Vakalisa (2003). In-depth one-on-one interviews were done with educators, school administrators, and students. Informal conversations with these respondents complemented the formal interviews since relevant themes also emerged. Documentary analysis, observations, as well as limited participation were the means of gathering data. The principals findings of the study were as follows: little or no preparation among teachers in low-ability classes; slow learners felt that the school administration and high-achieving students discriminate them; students in high-ability classes maintained that teachers who bunked their classes view them as intelligent to independently learn and that slow learners had no desire to learn and are disruptive; poor social interaction among learners from both groups creating a social stratification which is unhealthy. It was also concluded that the negative effects of ability grouping outweighed the expected ben efits. Therefore the practice warrants further re-examination. Hallam, Rogers, and Ireson (2006) explored arts and sports teachers attitudes towards ability grouping. The respondents were 45 secondary school teachers who have adopted different ability grouping levels. The questionnaire used elicited responses regarding teachers beliefs regarding ability grouping and its effects. Overall, physical education teachers demonstrated the most positive attitudes; drama teachers, least positive and arts and music teachers, moderately positive. Thus, the best determinant of attitudes was the subject taught. The findings of the study supported that notion that arts and sports teachers positively perceive mixed-ability teaching. The study of Hallam and Ireson in 2006 revealed that of those pupils who expressed a preference 62% of pupils indicated a preference for setting, 24% for mixed-ability classes, and 2% each for streaming, banding or an unspecified other. Seven percent said that they didnt know (Hallam Ireson, 2006, p. 587). Later in 2007, Hallam and Ireson conducted a follow up study determining the students level of satisfaction with their present ability group placement. About 38% wanted to change to another group and62% of the lowest achieving students were more desirous to switch their group placement. The research of Hallam and Ireson (2008) compared teachers attitudes in teaching different subjects in high, low, and mixed-ability classes in 45 secondary schools. There were more than 1500 teachers covering a wide range of subject specialists and they completed a questionnaire asking them their thoughts and beliefs regarding ability grouping and its impact. More supportive perceptions were noted in mathematics and foreign language teachers in comparison with English and Humanities teachers. Business, design, ICT, PE, arts, and science teachers expressed intermediate perceptions. The perceptions of the teachers were determined partly by the conceptions on the nature of the subject being taught and the type of ability grouping that is adopted in the school. MacQueen (2010) examined attitudes of teacher-respondents toward ability grouping based on the interviews conducted in three schools. The research discussed how the beliefs of teachers on this strategy affect practice in literacy classroom situations. The study concluded that the practices of teachers negatively impact regrouping strategy which compromised student learning. Chen (2006) investigated practitioners rationale and the experiences of students in flexible ability grouping. The researcher conducted interviews of four teachers utilizing this practice and surveys of 70 5th grade students at an elementary school located in southern California. Results suggested that despite the usefulness of ability grouping in planning and instruction, perceptions of low-achieving students were slightly more negative compared to that in high-achieving students. Ansalone and Biafort (2004) showed in their study that 70% of teachers reported adjusting classroom presentation according to the ability group while an even percentage reporting that more time is needed to cover the lesson in the low-ability tracks. Seventy-one percent employed special teaching techniques in aiding the delivery of instruction by track. According to 62% of teachers, more course material is provided in upper-track groups. While there are differences in the curricula according to the ability group, such as repetition of lesson and slower discussion pace, most educational sociologists fear that the presentation of the specific curriculum and the whole educational experience of low-achieving students will be different substantially and simplified conceptually. While the answers to the interviews are pointed towards curricular modification, many comments conveyed a desire and feeling among teachers to willingly work in presenting the whole curriculum to the entire student s and assisting them regardless of ability group. Little support is given to the notion that low-achieving students cannot be taught. While more than 70% of teachers in the survey reported adjustments to the curriculum in accordance to track, the general response indicates that the teacher would still want to present the same curriculum to students despite being in the lower- or upper-track levels. The purpose of Fans study (2007) is to investigate the attitudes of students and teachers on ability grouping in Freshman English instruction.ÃâÃ It tested whether students from the different ability groups varied in their perceptions towards the practice. In addition, it likewise explored the variations in the perceptions of students and teachers. Participants were 676 second year university students and 17 teachers. Questionnaires were self-administered to determine the perceptive of students and teachers towards ability grouping for the school year. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics; t-test and and one-way ANOVA tested the hypotheses. Similarities in student perceptions (level A and B) were summarized in the following: First, students manifested positive or neutral attitudes toward ability grouping in English instruction.ÃâÃ Second, students regarded that improvement in English proficiency is related to their personal learning attitude. Howe ver, some differences were detected between levels A and B students in psychological effects and instruction and material.ÃâÃ First, level B students considered that when they are learning together with similar level colleagues, learning anxiety and pressure are reduced compared with level A students.ÃâÃ Second, level B students also viewed that teachers could modify their pace of teaching and evaluate them by their level in comparison to level A participants. In addition, there were significant differences in the perceptions between the students and teachers.ÃâÃ First, students believed that learning with classmates in different classes increased motivation when compared to the teachers. Second, teachers maintained that because of the grouping, teachers can assess students in terms of their ability level in comparison with the students. Moreover, teachers also viewed that improvement among students in English is associated to their learning attitude against the stude nts views. Despite ongoing researches that establish the effectiveness of ability grouping, schools are increasingly maintaining and applying stratification practices such as streaming, banding and setting in order to raise levels of attainment. While past English studies investigated various elements of school-level grouping methods, there still is a research gap since there is no attempt on the part of the researchers to elucidate ways that head teachers frame the problems, pursue and consider equity and influence decisions and practices at the school-level pertaining to grouping methods. The paper of Trigg-Smith (2011) reviewed how policy climate contributes to the decisions of the school with regard to ability grouping, how the head teachers work, how existing theories of intelligence and ability reinforce the grouping methods, plausible frameworks for the exploration of equity in the grouping, importance of the impact head teachers have on the grouping, and recommendations as to the counte rmeasures leaders can adopt to curb inequity and further structural change. Grouping criteria In schools, the process of assigning students to a particular group is referred to by Kelly (2007) as student/parent informed choice system; choice which means that the students can enroll in any class which they are eligible for. On the contrary, the description of the policy is misleading; based in a number of school curriculum guides, the school decides the students eligibility because of the prerequisite grade requirement which is most commonly obtaining score better than the cutoff in a standardized test, teacher recommendations, prior course taking, and other vague requirements. The author emphasizes that employing both objective and subjective assignment criteria creates placement practices ranging from highly to less restrictive. While standardized tests, quota systems, and rigid scheduling form part of highly restrictive placement criteria, test placement is avoided in less restrictive criteria allowing overrides following assignment of course. The criteria promotes catching up during summer and put forward a less elite-centric philosophy. Watanabe (2007) concluded that out of 6 teachers, 5 recognized that the choice of the student on the course to take is a significant element on how tracking is defined. However, no one of the teachers in the study conceptualized the definition of tracking and its manner of implementation. In addition, it was observed that the perceived level of student preparation critically determined granting access to high level subject by the teacher. Scores in standardized tests, prior coursework, and grades were the most often utilized indicators measuring the skills and level of preparation of the students. RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS In this chapter, findings are summarized and conclusions are drawn based on the results. A discussion of the issues related to this study and possible implications for educators and administrators follows. Finally, recommendations for future research and practice of this study are shared. Summary of the Study The issue of ability grouping in schools has been the subject of debate for many years and will be for years to come (Hopkins, 2003). Many have feared that ability grouping will hinder the advancement of students with low ability since there will be an emphasis on basic knowledge instead of advanced learning. On the other hand, proponents insist that that grouping by ability has the potential of improving student achievement by increasing level of motivation. The only certain conclusion is that further research on ability grouping will benefit both educators and school administrators. Hence, this examination of perceptions on ability grouping was conducted. This proposed study looked to explore the pros and cons of ability grouping as it pertains to student academic achievement. This study also examined the perceptions on ability grouping from various stakeholders to include administrators, teachers, and parents in the educational system at the middle school level. The purpose of this research was to gain further insight on ability grouping as an educational policy but based on the perspective of administrators, teachers, and parents in three middle schools within a rural school district. This study intended to allow for inference on the effective strategies and techniques of implementing ability grouping in the operation of the school. Information collected in this quantitative research was gathered from surveys given to the administrators, teachers, and parents. Findings from this research will be forwarded to the district superintendent in hopes of providing guidance for improving classroom instruction and raising student achievement. Ultimately, this research serves to shed light on an instructional approach that should increase student achievement. The following four research questions acted as lenses to guide the research: Will administrators have an overall positive perception of ability grouping at the middle school level? Will teachers have an overall positive perception of ability grouping at the middle school level? Will parents have an overall positive perception of ability grouping at the middle school level? Summary of Findings and Conclusion The current research addressed the question of educational tracking and its continued use in contemporary American education, especially considering that the bulk of literature has pointed to its negative outcomes on students. After identifying the key stakeholders in this debate, namely teachers, school principals, students and parents, an attempt was made to assess the perceptions of each in order to arrive at an understanding of the mechanisms that keep this educational practice in place. R1: Will administrators have an overall positive perception of ability grouping at the middle school level? A full account of the results for Question 1 is presented in Chapter 4. It was hypothesized that administrators will view ability grouping at the middle school level positively. Descriptive analysis of the survey responses for administrators indicated that their perceptions were moderately in favor of ability grouping. However, this means that administrators did not necessarily have an overall positive perception of educational tracking in the middle school. Most administrators reported having background knowledge of ability grouping. Responses consisted of agree (66.7%) and strongly agree (33.3%) including a mean rating of 4.33 and a median rating of 4.00. Administrators perceived that ability grouping will result to improvement in students scores in standardized tests. Responses were evenly spread through undecided (33.3%), agree (33.3%), and strongly agree (33.3%). Mean and median rating was 4.00. Administrators slightly agreed that ability grouping expands the teachers capacity in meeting students needs. Responses include disagree (33.3%), agree (33.3%) and strongly agree (33.5%). Mean and median rating was 3.67. Administrators slightly agreed that ability grouping increases student motivation. Responses include disagree (33.3%), agree (33.3%) and strongly agree (33.3%). Mean rating was 3.67 while median rating was 4.00. Most administrators perceived that ability grouping increases teacher effectiveness in planning instruction. Two administrators (66.7%) strongly agreed while one was undecided (33.3%). Administrators agreed very slightly that when students are grouped according to ability, they become more confident in terms of student achievement. One administrator disagreed (33.3%) while two of the administrators agreed (66.7%). Mean rating was 3.33 while the media rating was 4.00. Most administrators perceived ability grouping to be an unfair practice to students. Their responses included undecided (33.3%) and agree (66.7%). Mean rating was lower at 3.67 compared to the median rating at 4.00. Administrators were ambivalent on whether ability grouping creates a positive learning environment. Most could not decide (66.7%) or agreed (33.3%) to the statement. Mean rating was 3.33 while median rating was 3.00. Administrators strongly agreed that teacher input is essential in the appropriate ability group placement of students. Their responses were agree (66.7%) and strongly agree (33.3%). The mean (4.33) and median (4.00) rating showed relatively strong agreement. Administrators strongly agreed that placing talented students along lower-achieving groups would lower self-esteem. The mean and median rating for this statement was 4.00. Administrators perceptions were divided on whether ability grouping only benefits high school students. Their responses to the statement were strongly disagree (33.3%), disagree (33.3%), and agree (33.3%). The overall mean and median rating indicated a moderate level of disagreement. Administrators had mixed perceptions on whether ability grouping would improve overall education of students. Their responses to the statement were disagree (33.3%), undecided (33.3%), and agree (33.3%). The mean and median rating indicated undecided at 3.00. Administrators did not agree that ability grouping had no positive benefits for students. Their responses to the statement were
Friday, January 17, 2020
Also, one interview was conducted with two Business School faculty members. Findings confirmed that the majority of the AH-Jell respondents are optimistic about achieving the challenge of 2010. Moreover, hey all agreed that the economic impacts of this challenge will be mostly positive while the social ones will be mostly negative. To sum up, the Moroccan government should make more efforts to develop the tourism sector, such as developing the infrastructure and the tourism industry, in order to realize this national project of sustainable development. Introduction Moroccan Kingdom is an Arab developing country situated on the extreme north-western corner of Africa. Because it is one of the rare Arab countries that don't have oil and gas resources, Morocco's economy is mainly based on agriculture and industry. Indeed, these two sectors cannot constantly provide the Moroccan government with needed and expected incomes; besides, they are unable to solve Morocco's crucial social and eco nomic problems such as unemployment and poverty.The country's strategic geographical situation and unique natural assets encourage the whole society to see tourism as the future economic sector that society can rely on. Consequently, the government sacrifices a great budget and energy to develop tourism. Moreover, it has established new agreements with many countries to bring investors and create a beneficial competition. The government's biggest challenge, from which the whole society expects a lot, is the attraction of 10 million tourists by 2010.The challenge of receiving 10 million foreign tourists by the year 2010 is a big national project that, if realized, will have a great impact on all Moroccan, among them AH Shawano University (AU') and Affair community. In fact, AH-J and Affair community constituted the main source of this research. The main purpose of this research paper is to investigate whether Morocco, with its set strategies, will be ready to receive 10 million touri sts by 2010. This challenge has en the hope of all Moroccan since the famous speech of the king Mohammed the sixth in 2001.It was chosen to explore this topic because of its importance to the economic and social life in Morocco. Moroccan believe that, if the country could development. 4 The challenge that the Moroccan government made about receiving 10 million tourists by the year 2010 brought up a set of assumptions that needed to be discussed. The first assumption about this issue was that some of tourism negative impacts on society, such as sexual tourism, will increase in many cities all over Morocco, especially in the touristy ones. Another assumption was that insecurity will spread in the country.Additionally, many Moroccan are pessimistic about the government's ability to achieve this goal. This research paper has some important concepts that need to be explained and clarified in order to have a better understanding of the topic. The one that was frequently used because of it s importance in this study is the word Ã¢â¬Å"challengeÃ¢â¬ which is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"Something needing great mental or physical effort in order to be done successfully, or the situation of facing this kind of effortÃ¢â¬ according to Cambridge Dictionary.Another incept is Ã¢â¬Å"infrastructureÃ¢â¬ , which means Ã¢â¬Å"The stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country' according to Workbenches dictionary. In addition, Ã¢â¬Å"entertainment industry' is another word that means Ã¢â¬Å"An industry which consists of a large number of sub-industries devoted to entertainment. Ã¢â¬Å"(Wisped Encyclopedia). Another unclear term in this research paper is Ã¢â¬Å"Gross Domestic Product (GAP)Ã¢â¬ . According to Wisped Encyclopedia, The GAP of a country is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"The market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of timeÃ¢â¬ .This paper was set out to answer the following research question: Is Morocco ready to receive 10 million foreign visitors by 2010 and, if so, what are the possible effects of this on the economic and social life of the country? Literature Review Today, Morocco is halfway through its nine-year programmer to increase tourists' number to 10 million by the end of the decade, a challenge introduced by the King Mohammed VI in January 2001. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate some of many studies that were conducted about tourism development.Thus, the first part of it compares the Moroccan natural and cultural assets with those of other countries. The second part talks about the strategies that were settled by some countries in order to improve their tourism sector. Finally, this part of the paper copes with giving both economic and social impacts of tourism development. In the majority of developing countries, tourism is mainly based on natural and cultural assets. For instance, Ã¢â¬Å"Most of foreign visitors to South Africa indicat e that the wildlife is what attracted them to South Africa and that it had exceeded their expectations. (Sandman, 2001). Also, Ã¢â¬Å"Cyprus has long been a popular tourist destination because of its physical and climatic characteristicsÃ¢â¬ (Sharply, 001). Another example is Malta which is one of the most popular Mediterranean tourist destinations because of some important factors such as Ã¢â¬Å"The temperate winters and subtropical summers, complemented by long daily hours of assets of countries which is the case in Singapore where Ã¢â¬Å"tourism is based on urban historical quarters reflecting a multicultural populationÃ¢â¬ (Change, 1999).Similarly, Moroccan tourism is mainly based on natural and cultural assets because of its strategic geographical situation. For instance, Morocco is known by its 3500 km of coastlines that include many beautiful sandy beaches, and its unique Mediterranean limited and multicultural population. 6 Natural assets are fundamental but not enough to attract tourists and develop tourism sector. Thus, countries have to set well-studied and fitting strategies to get profit from their natural assets.Taking the example of Mexico, Ã¢â¬Å"In the sass and 1970, tourism promotion policies in developing countries focused primarily on providing infrastructural support for largesse, enclave- like projects in order to meet the demand of an ever-wealthier international clientele that was anxious to spend its leisure time abroad. Ã¢â¬ (Brenner, 2005). This example illustrates the importance of infrastructures in developing tourism sector.Sharply (2001) stated that Cypriot tourism authorities, whilst accepting that tourism has become the primary engine driving the economy, proposes a number of policies designed to overcome many of current challenges at the same time as providing a stable foundation for the future development of tourism. Making challenges is essential for the development of tourism in any country. Cyprus and Morocco are good examples that illustrate this idea. Nowadays, Morocco tends to set strategies to meet the challenge of attracting 10 million tourists by 2010. Tourism development affects the whole country, especially its economic and social sectors.As an example of economic impacts, the Kruger National Park in South Africa had a significant impact on the development of the tourism industry in the province. This industry is currently a significant sector in the Mulligan economy in terms of both contribution to production and employment, (Cayman, 2006). As Gun and Vary (2002) stated, Ã¢â¬Å"Through the development of tourism, more people will be employed, obtain incomes, new tax revenues will be received, and new wealth will accumulateÃ¢â¬ (p. 105). In another example, tourism is a proven employment sector in Canada. In 2004, Ontario tourism generated $21. Billion in annual revenues and accounted for approximately 486,000 Jobs. (Ontario, n. D). On the other hand, tourism development has also social impacts on the country. For instance, in Malta the impacts 7 of the natural and sex tourism were characterized by some negative effects. According to Merrimack (2001), the most important impact was the growing awareness of the dangers of skin cancer and AIDS. These bad impacts can affect negatively the progress of tourism sector in Malta. However, tourism development can also have a positive impact on the social life in any country.One of the most important positive impacts of developing tourism is that it can reduce discrimination and prejudice among people. As Golden and Ritchie (2003) stated, Ã¢â¬Å"One to one interaction between hosts and guest can break down stereotypes, or the act of categorizing groups of people based upon a single dimensionÃ¢â¬ (p. 303). There is considerable body of researches that have been conducted on tourism development in many countries. The possible impacts of it on the economic and social sectors in Morocco. Moroccan tourism development mai nly relies on meeting the challenge of attracting 10 million foreign visitors.This research project investigated whether Morocco can meet this challenge or not and the possible outcomes of it on the economic and social life once this challenge is met. Methodology Design Approaching the Moroccan challenge of attracting 10 million tourists by 2010 required conducting analyzing and predictive research. First, investigating whether Morocco is ready to receive 10 million tourists by 2010 necessitated doing an explanatory research; analyzing information from efferent perspectives to end up with better understanding of the issue was necessary.Second, the future impact of achieving this challenge required predictive answers which were mainly supported by other countries' experiences on tourism sector like Spain, 8 focusing on how increased tourism affected their economic and social sectors. Thus, a comparison of the Moroccan economic and social conditions could be done to see if similar res ults have any chance to take place in Morocco. In exploring the issue, the study used both quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative methods instituted an efficient way for gathering information necessary for statistics needed to reinforce the research.It was an appropriate way for approaching the two sides of the issue that deal with studying the probability of meeting the challenge and its effects on Morocco. Using qualitative methods in this investigation was also important because it afforded additional data for accomplishing the study; it was more suitable for investigating the first part of this Moroccan national project than the second one, for the fact that it was a source of detailed information about the actual situation of tourism in Morocco.Subjects An interview was held with two faculty members of Business Administration School because they constituted a more appropriate and relevant source for needed information, especially because of the fact that they have e xpertise in economic issues in Morocco of which tourism is a part of. Concerning the surveys, two types of surveys were developed; one for exchange students and the other for Moroccan students. In this research, exchange students were considered as tourists, because they are foreigners who travel in Morocco in their free time as any tourists.The second survey group was Moroccan students. They were chosen because of the fact that they have been living in Morocco and aware of national issues. Concerning the sample size, it wastes due to the small number of students in the summer session which is approximately 300 students. Also, this number of surveys has an acceptable 9 percentage of errors which is approximately 10%. The sample was randomly selected; 25 surveys were given to exchange students and 75 surveys to Moroccan students, either males or females from all levels of studies.In fact, 49 surveys were returned back: 12 surveys of exchange students and 37 surveys of Moroccan dents. Procedures The team members were separated into two pairs. Each pair was responsible for collecting data about the issue using one specific method either interview or surveys. These two methods have been chosen to collect data because while surveys were an easy and a quick method to collect statistical data. The first pair was responsible for conducting the interview and recording it. Two members of the team were required to talk to the faculty members during their office hours.Interview questions were developed depending on the position of the interviewees. It included 6 general questions about the three main parts of the topic that cope with the possibility of meeting the challenge 2010, the strategies adopted in promoting tourism in Morocco and its predicted impacts on the country. In addition, some sub- questions were included to give more specific details about the subject (Appendix 1). The second pair handed out the surveys at random to AH-Jell Moroccan and exchange students during lunchtime and whenever they meet them on campus.The majority of survey questions prepared for AH-Jell Moroccan students had the purpose to collect answers about the following issues: does Morocco have the ability to host an increased number of tourists; strategies that will facilitate meeting the 2010 challenge and possible impact of increased numbers of tourists. The surveys contained 10 closed and open-ended questions. For 10 one remaining question, subjects were asked to rank their response on a scale of 1 to 3 (Appendix 2). Concerning survey questions for exchange students, they also consisted of 10 closed and open-ended questions with one question that needed to be ranked from 1 to 3.These questions mostly focused on the experience of exchange students as visitors to Morocco (Appendix 3). Results After handing on 37 surveys to AH-Jell students and 12 surveys to exchange students, and holding an interview, many valuable results were found about the topic of the Moroccan c hallenge to attract 10 million foreign visitors by 2010. These results satisfied both the research question and the assumptions about the issue. Surveys Among 25 surveys that were distributed to exchange students, 12 surveys were returned. These students were considered as tourists in order to evaluate their opinions about tourism in Morocco.The chart below represents the level of priority accorded by exchange students to develop different services that are essential to meet the challenge of attracting 10 million tourists in Morocco. 11 Figure 1: Amenities to Develop to Meet the Challenge of 2010 Infrastructure Air-links Quality of service Hotel's capacity 29% N=12 As Figure 1 shows, the majority of exchange students (43%) claimed that the infrastructure of the country (e. G. Roads, railways, public buildings) is the most important service that needs to be developed, followed by air-links (29%), then the quality of service and hotel's capacity (14 %).Moreover, some students had othe r suggestions about what Morocco needs to develop to realize Vision 2010. Some of upgrade resort-beach areas which attract people. Ã¢â¬â To create more entertainment industry. Concerning the impact of this challenge if achieved, 100 % of students surveyed (N=12) thought that it will have a positive impact for several reasons: It will help the country to progress and develop positively and will upgrade the standard of living and influence in the world. It will bring in a lot of money to Morocco and help the economy. 2 Exchange students were also asked about what will attract 10 million tourists to visit Morocco. Figure 2 illustrates the results gotten for this question in which students were supposed to choose at least one answer between four elements: Moroccan culture, Moroccan landscapes, Moroccan coastline and Moroccan architecture. Figure 2: Tourist Attractions in Morocco 15% 34% Cultural tradition Landscape Coastlines Architecture 27% 24% N=12 Many students insisted that a co mbination of all of these elements is vital for the tourism sector in Morocco. 3 Figure 3: The Role of Moroccan to Meet the Challenge 100806040200 be g in g vow id A N=12 Moroccan population plays an important role for the success of the challenge. 5% of exchange students think that Moroccan citizens' role in meeting this challenge is to be helpful, 67% of them think that they should be friendly while 75% of them think that they should be open-minded. However, only 33% of them claim that Moroccan should avoid begging. In fact, 83 % of exchange students find that Moroccan outside AH-Jell are helpful, 75% of these students find Moroccan kind people.However, none of these students describe Moroccan as unsociable, racist, or unfriendly people. The following chart shows the most attractive cities in Morocco according to students' points of view. Re in ODL y pop en -m in deed Be he Ip full 14 Figure 4: The Most Attractive Destinations in Morocco N=12 Some students proposed other Moroccan cities, which were not proposed in the given list of cities, that they think are attractive. An example of them is Tangier and Chanson (Coffeehouse). The exchange students had different attitudes concerning safety in Morocco before and after coming. 7% of students stated that they had some concerns about safety and security in this country; however, after they came to Morocco, 92% of students feel that they are in a safe country. In this survey, exchange students were asked whether they want to come back to Morocco or not. All students surveyed want to come back to Morocco except two students who were indifferent. The main reason for coming back to Morocco, that the majority of subjects (83%) gave, is the beauty of the country including the good weather, beaches, landscapes, and its culture.In addition, two students (17%) intend to study here and do research about Amazing 1 5 culture, while the two indifferent students want to see other places before coming back to Morocco. As the e xchange student survey results illustrated, 50% of them mound some problems while they were traveling in Morocco. For instance, the language barrier is the major problem of these students since the majority of Moroccan do not speak English. While 50% did not find any problem during their journeys in Morocco. Concerning Moroccan' surveys, 37 surveys were returned among 75 surveys hand out to AH-Jell Moroccan students.Since this research project first investigates Moroccan capability to meet this challenge, one of the surveys' outcomes showed that 22 Moroccan students out of 37 (60%) believe that Morocco will be able to meet this challenge and 15 students (40%) disbelieve on this capability. Concerning the aspects that Morocco needs to develop the most in order to meet this challenge in which students can choose more than one answer, almost all of the respondents agreed that the infrastructure are the ones that need to be developed the most.Quality of service and hospitality came in t he second place with 70% of voices. Moreover, 54% of the respondents said that air-links have to be developed and only 5% thinks that hotel capacity has to be improved in Morocco. Some respondents suggested other aspects to develop. For example, they said that Morocco needs to enhance the rate of foreign investments, develop administration, improve the Moroccan mentality, develop Justice, ethical concerns and health issues, and also enhance the service provided to visitors in order to attract and retain them. 6 Figure 5: The Affected Sectors by the Moroccan Challenge 100 80 60 40 20 0 Economic social political N= 37 The chart above obviously demonstrates that students surveyed think that the economic sector will be the most affected by the meeting of this challenge, after that comes the social sector and finally the political sector. Many reasons were given for choosing the economic sector. Students said that by achieving this goal, a decrease in also said that Morocco will receive more hard currencies which are helpful for its economic balance.Furthermore, that will increase the income of the country, and the Gross Domestic Product (GAP). Concerning the social sector, some students stated that the huge coming of foreign tourists will have a very big effect on young people's behavior and mentality. Also, they said that the social layers and different people from different countries may create problems such as insecurity, and cause the disappearance of Moroccan culture. However, some of them had a positive view of the impact of this challenge over the social sector. They stated that people will be more tolerant and mutual respect for individual differences will occur.For the political sector which was the least 17 selected, some respondents said that by meeting this challenge, Morocco will change its political relationships with other countries, especially the ones from which the tourists come. Moreover, they claimed that there will be more secularism in the re gime and the 10 million tourists might serve as an implicit means of public relations to promote a good image for Morocco. Concerning the question that investigated if Morocco needs foreign investors or not to meet this challenge, 22 Moroccan students out of 35 answered yes and 13 answered no.The respondents that answered yes to this question gave many reasons for their choice. For instance, they said that Morocco needs foreign investors because they have more experience, can bring foreign currencies, will create lots of Job opportunities and are also a source of more capital and expertise. They also said that Morocco is a poor country that cannot afford all the needed money for this huge project, the Moroccan capacities are limited, Morocco lacks the know-how and capital and also they need foreign investors in order to follow the international norms.For the respondents who answered no to this question, they also gave their reasons for doing so. They said that Morocco should first u se its own energies because that will encourage young people to make investments. It should also be responsible for this challenge and employ Moroccan investors. Figure 6: Media Effectiveness in Meeting this Challenge Frequency Number of students Percentage Very effective 18 53% Somewhat effective 11 32. 3% Not very effective 5 14. % 34 18 It is clear from the table above that most of the Moroccan students that answered this question think that the media would be very effective in meeting the challenge UT forth by the Moroccan government. Figure 7: Tourist Attractions in Morocco 13% Cultural Tradition Landscapes Coastlines Architecture Other N= 37 The Ã¢â¬Å"otherÃ¢â¬ option for this question according to the respondents included the Moroccan weather, Moroccan geographical situation to Europe, and Moroccan political stability which means no rebellions and no revolutions.When AH-Jell Moroccan students were asked about the role of the Moroccan population in meeting this challenge, 36% of them said that Moroccan have to be open-minded, 23% chose avoid begging as an answer to this question, 22% said that Moroccan must be lawful to tourists and only 18% said that they have to be friendly. Some students wrote in the Ã¢â¬Å"otherÃ¢â¬ option that Moroccan have to avoid over-pricing products and services, stop looking at people from other cultures, avoid stealing from tourists and do not get tourists involved in fraud. 9 Another point in this survey deals with whether Morocco can assure being a safe place to visit by 2010 or not. According to the results, 85% of the Moroccan students said yes to this question and no more than 14% said no. Figure 8: Ranking of the Most Attractive Cities for Tourists 100 80 60 40 20 0 First Second Third Marched Acadia Organza Other N= 37 The chart above illustrates that the respondents chose Marched as the most attractive destination for tourists with 82% of the voices. The second choice was the city of Acadia with 61% votes.In the third place comes Organza with 39% of the voices. For the other cities, students chose among Sibilance, Assessors, Fez, and Meekness. Moreover, other respondents proposed Tangier as a good destination for tourists even if the survey did not include it. Students were asked to choose more than one answer in the expectations about the season that will recognize the largest number of tourists. According to students' answers, 83% said that the summer is the season that will recognize the largest number of tourists.After that comes the spring season then winter, and finally fall season with only three votes (8%). 20 Interview An interview was conducted with two faculty members from the School of Business Administration, who are experts in Tourism. First, the professors were asked about their opinions of the new Moroccan policy of promoting tourism, and they think that it is a good idea in the sense that tourism is a big industry that can have positive benefits on the country's economy. I n addition, they were asked a question about whether they are pessimistic or optimistic about meeting the challenge 2010.As an answer, they claimed that they are both pessimistic about the number of tourists expected; they don't believe that Morocco will receive 10 million tourists by 2010 because of many reasons. Some of these reasons are that Morocco needs to make serious projects and to make the industry more professional. However, these faculty members are both optimistic about the progress of tourism in Morocco. Second, the business faculty members agreed that Morocco is a beautiful country; there are
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Zach Sabo Ms. Jessica English Class 5 November 2012 WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Right Are Human Rights: A Rhetorical Analysis Several decades ago, the global womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights treaty was ratified by a majority of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s nation. Despite its many successes in advancing and empowering women in relation to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights, poverty, decision-making, violence against women, and other numerous issues actually still exist in all aspects of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Therefore, the 4th World Conference on Women with its unique slogan Ã¢â¬Å"Action for Equality, Development, and PeaceÃ¢â¬ was held in Beijing, China from the 4th to the 15th of September 1995 with participation of international delegates from more than 180 countries including the United States of America (BeijingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Clinton illustrates the painful reality of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives to the audience that is intended to make them feel sympathy by portraying women as victims of inequality. She also emphasize the word Ã¢â¬Å"speakÃ¢â¬ at the beginning of each sentence because she believes that this international conference on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights is the best platform for her to speak up about some womenÃ¢â¬â¢s issues that have been overlooked and denied until today. The way she uses the word Ã¢â¬Å"speakÃ¢â¬ mainly to delivers her message across in a smooth and concise way by listing several different violations of human rights. Furthermore, Clinton also provides one upsetting example when she states, Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a violation of human rights when a leading cause of death worldwide among women ages 14 to 44 is the violence they are subjected to in their own homes by their own relatives.Ã¢â¬ This statistic probably reminds the audiences of the immediacy of the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and maybe even hit close to the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s perception and emotions to look more serious regarding the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights issues. Based on this statistics, Clinton uses pathos by arguing that women in all group of ages deserved to be treated equally and assuming that she do not agree with t he way women are currently being treated by the world. Moreover, the logos appeal comes into play in her speech when she claims that a peaceful world cannot beShow MoreRelatedRhetorical Analysis Of President Clintons Speech On Diversity710 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesPresident Clinton delivered a speech on diversity in the summer of 1998 for the commencement of the graduating class at Portland State University. He begins his speech addressing the fact that our world is becoming more diverse and now is the time that everyone begins to accept that fact. Because of the impact of different diversity and cultures we can grow and become stronger as a nation. 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